History of Civilization

History of Civilization

1. When in early antiquity Pao Hsi ruled the world, he looked upward and contemplated the images in the heavens; he looked downward and contemplated the patterns on earth. He contemplated the markings of birds and beasts and the adaptations to the regions. He proceeded directly from himself and indirectly from objects. Thus he invented the eight trigrams in order to enter into connection with the virtues of the light of the gods and to regulate the conditions of all beings.

When in early antiquity Pao Hsi ruled the world,

Fu Hsi and early antiquity was around 3,300 BC.

he looked upward and contemplated the images in the heavens;

He observed the signs in the heavens (zodiac) and the moving lights (sun, moon and planets)

he looked downward and contemplated the patterns on earth.

He observed the effects of the heavenly lights on the forms on earth.

The patterns on the earth are the seasons of the year, the tides and effects of the moon, and the sun rising and setting in the day.

It could be considered that the patterns of the heavenly lights their cycles and phenomena associated with them were observed and contemplated.

The patterns on the earth are also the astrological houses.

In astrological terms:

He observed the moving lights (sun, moon and planets) in the heavenly signs and in the astrological houses according to the patterns in the horoscope.

He contemplated the markings of birds and beasts and the adaptations to the regions.

The zodiac was a zoo-diac, a collection of twelve animals and birds of the heavens. (dog, rooster, tiger, horse, ox, pig, etc.)

He contemplated the different implications of each zodiac animal and how they adapted to or influenced each astrological house.

This is the influence of the seasons of the year on the hours of the day.

He proceeded directly from himself and indirectly from objects.

He began with his own horoscope, or great beginning and then upon the nature of his relationships and the influence of objects around him.

Since a superior man was one who emulated the heavenly lights and thereby elevated his nature, he would be concerned about elevating his nature first and foremost, and then indirectly he would deal with the things and circumstances around him.

If he did not elevate his nature first, what chance would he have to properly control the things around him?

If he could not properly control or deal with things from a wiser heavenly perspective, he would no longer be a superior man.

Thus he invented the eight trigrams in order to enter into connection with the virtues of the light of the gods

The eight trigrams were created to enable the wise one to understand the zodiac and the moving lights within it.

The light of the gods is the light of the sun, moon and planets, which were considered to be gods.

The virtue of the light of the gods refers to understanding the elevating qualities of the sun, moon and each planet, and how they can be used to make life better.

and to regulate the conditions of all beings.

The astrological houses (hours of the day) reveal the circumstances and conditions of life on earth for all beings.

By seeing how the gods or moving lights were in certain houses for a certain period of time, one would understand how they guided and affected life and the worldly affairs of man.

Because a superior man or wise person would know these things, they would be the most capable ones to regulate the conditions of all beings and to rule the kingdom.

The emperor was considered to be a representative of the gods on earth, a representative of heaven on earth!

Special note: The following examples are associations of the trigram imagery with the suggestion that this is where creative ideas come from.

The descriptions reveal the imagery of the trigrams within the hexagrams, showing the validity of the images and their usefulness.

Here the internal images of the hexagrams are presented without consideration of factors of time; such as the year, moon cycles, or hours of the day.

These are interpretations out of sequence and out of time.

There is a beautiful poetry of image association here that also permeates the Chinese picture language.

It shows how to make associations and sense out of the hexagrams

It reveals a foundation for interpretation as it was practiced in the era Later Heaven.

2. He made knotted cords and used them for nets and baskets in hunting and fishing. He probably took this from the hexagram of THE CLINGING.

 

THE CLINGING

He made knotted cords and used them for nets and baskets in hunting and fishing. He probably took this from the hexagram of THE CLINGING.

This is the image of the Clinging, Fire.

Here the clinging is doubled.

It is both the upper and the lower trigram.

The Clinging trigram consists of firmness above and below with yieldingness in between.

This is similar to a net.

The nuclear hexagram is Preponderance of the Great,

 

Preponderance of the Great

With four solid lines, like four big fish, caught moving helplessly within two yielding lines.

The upper nuclear trigram is the Joyous, Lake suggesting a lake where fish live.

The lower nuclear trigram is the Gentle, Penetrating like the net penetrating the water without disturbing it.

This suggests joyful penetration of the lake bringing about preponderance of the great amount of fish one will catch by casting a net in the lake.

A further association to the zodiac is that this hexagram is in the Zodiac sign of Pisces, two fish tied together.

This association to using a net to fishing is then extended to also include the use of a net in hunting.

By further association:

The use of dependency and clinging onto something reveals that something is gained by such an attitude.

Preponderance of the Great is the nuclear hexagram within.

This shows the motivation for being dependent and clinging to things in general.

It is like the phenomena of foot binding where feet are bound and made weak so that the woman will be more feminine and yielding, like fish caught in a net.

She cannot do much without the help of others.

If by this process she gets the help of others, she becomes established and secure.

By becoming weaker, one can trap someone stronger.

How can a superior man not assist a helpless woman and make her life easier?


There is a Piscean guilt complex at work here.

Furthermore the part of the body associated to Pisces is the feet!

Our body depends on our feet to move, be active, and go places.

3. When Pao Hsi’s clan was gone, there sprang up the clan of the Divine Husbandman. He split a piece of wood for a plowshare and bent a piece of wood for the plow handle, and taught the whole world the advantage of laying open the earth with a plow. He probably took this from the hexagram of INCREASE.

When Pao Hsi’s clan was gone, there sprang up the clan of the Divine Husbandman.

These examples are exercises in the use of trigram symbolism and association. They came from a later era and idealized an earlier era.

He split a piece of wood for a plowshare and bent a piece of wood for the plow handle, and taught the whole world the advantage of laying open the earth with a plow.

This is the hexagram of Increase.

 INCREASE

The initial implication is that thunder, the lower trigram, and wind, the upper trigram increase each other.

Where there is thunder, there is wind.

A second association is:

The gentle penetrating wood above and the arousing force below.

Here we have wood that penetrates and makes a shocking disturbance.

 Splitting Apart

The nuclear hexagram of Splitting Apart adds its obvious association.

The upper nuclear trigram is the Mountain, Keeping Still.

This can refer to a field waiting to be cultivated or plowed.

It can also refer to the mound that is left on the side after the earth has been plowed.

It sits there keeping still until the seeds are placed in the furrow, and it can then be used to cover up the seeds.

The lower nuclear trigram is the Receptive Earth, waiting to be plowed.

The earth, keeping still waiting to be plowed and yielding to the gentle penetration of the wooden plow, increases what can be done and the subsequent harvest is increased as well.

It is a gentle penetration because the plow only goes a few inches into the earth and clears a path for seeding.

He probably took this from the hexagram of INCREASE.

This process of romanticizing or idealizing what an ancient sage did gave the process a sense of validity, but was really just hearsay or a gossiping way of saying that it must be important because an ancient sage used it.

It is more likely that it has been of value and in use for a long time.

It represents an old teaching.

It is enough to show that this hexagram symbolizes and relates to the benefits of plowing and thereby increasing the size of the crop and of the harvest.

Assuming that someone used this hexagram to design the plow is the manner in which the sages of the mathematical era asserted their credibility.

It is something which had to be accepted and could not be proven.

This created a reverence for the absurd.

Although these ideas are within the hexagram and can be used for creating tools, they also are a tool for understanding the deeper implications of time and change.

For example: knowing the sequence and changes within a year can teach one to know when to plant!

In astrology:

This is a Capricorn hexagram. Capricorn embraces the theme of hard work.

It is an earth sign and is associated with being prepared.

Like preparing or plowing the earth …. short term pain for long term gain!

4. When the sun stood at midday, he held a market. He caused the people of the earth to come together and collected the wares of the earth. They exchanged these with one another, then returned home, and each thing found its place. Probably he took this from the hexagram of BITING THROUGH.

 BITING THROUGH

When the sun stood at midday, he held a market.

This is a reference to the day cycle and that people will gather at the market place at noon.

The hexagram is given an association to noon, but in the original (Earlier Heaven) sequence the six solid lines of The Creative represented noon or the greatest brightness.

What we have here is the imposition of a numerological consideration (Sequence of Later Heaven) to represent noon.

There is a distortion here between the association to noon and the actual phenomena of noon (the greatest light).

The phenomena corresponds to the reality of light at noon, and this determines its correct place in the natural sequence.

Again by saying the ancient sage did this, attempts to give a kind of credibility to the person saying it, but in fact it is only name dropping to give seeming more importance to what is being said.

He caused the people of the earth to come together and collected the wares of the earth. They exchanged these with one another, then returned home, and each thing found its place. Probably he took this from the hexagram of BITING THROUGH

This is the hexagram of Biting Through which refers to the arousing of the light.

In fact, according to the natural sequence, this would be before sunrise but after midnight when everyone is waiting for dawn to come.

When dawn comes, work can be done and one can take one’s things to the market.

At the market resources can be exchanged and business conducted.

The hexagram implies the rising of light and the way to the market!

Not to noon itself!

The upper trigram relates to the light (Clinging Fire) above.

In the mathematical era, the sun was given the questionable association to fire.

Numerological insights were used instead of astrological perceptions.

The lower trigram represents the Arousing Force, shock and sudden change.

One works on one’s crops all summer and in a day they are taken to market and exchanged.

This is a movement that brings shocking change and excitement.

Oh, what will one get in exchange for what one has?

In the light of day (Clinging, Fire) we will see what others have and try to cling to or make the best choices or deals.

 Obstruction

The nuclear hexagram is Obstruction.

The upper nuclear trigram is the abyss which refers to the hard work at harvest time and the good things thus obtained.

The lower nuclear trigram represents a mountain, Keeping Still, hence we have an association of the mountain of goods that people have worked hard to get.

Sitting still in the market place in front of a mountain of goods, as the light and warmth increase enabling all to see and thereby make exchanges.

5. When the clan of the Divine Husbandman was gone, there sprang up the clans of the Yellow Emperor, of Yao, and of Shun. They brought continuity into their alterations, so that people did not grow weary. They were divine in the transformations they wrought, so that the people were content. When one change had run its course, they altered. (Through alteration they achieved continuity.) Through continuity they achieved duration. Therefore: “They were blessed by heaven. Good fortune. Nothing that does not further.”

            The Yellow Emperor, Yao, and Shun allowed the upper and lower garments to hang down, and the world was in order. They probably took this from the hexagrams of THE CREATIVE and THE RECEPTIVE.

When the clan of the Divine Husbandman was gone, there sprang up the clans of the Yellow Emperor, of Yao, and of Shun.

Here there is a referral to the sequence of emperors in history and these were apparently good rulers that Confucius respected and that he felt were good because they used the changes, were sensitive to the judgements, and applied the advice to the running of the country.

According to Confucius that was why they were so good.

They brought continuity into their alterations, so that people did not grow weary.

They followed the ways of heaven on earth and this provided continuity.

They were aware of the cycles of the year (sun), the month (moon) and the day (earth), and they governed accordingly hence they were reliable and people lived according to the demands of the time.

They made adjustments whenever it was natural to do so.

They were in touch with the pulse of life and did not grow weary.

They did not tire of over-regulation.

They were divine in the transformations they wrought,

They used the changes (astrology), that is, the heavenly lights to guide their activities on earth.

They were divine.

They were astrologers.

They used divination to elevate their natures and manage their affairs on earth.

so that the people were content.

By being aware of the changes and the ways of heaven on earth, they were sensitive to the needs of others and to the demands of time.

Their subjects were therefore not unduly disturbed or regulated.

They were living in harmony with nature and the way of the changes.

They did not experience significant injustice.

They were therefore content with their circumstances.

When one change had run its course, they altered.

They were aware of the cycles of the seasons, the zodiac, and the moon phases and their effects on earth.

When one season, one month or one day would end they would adjust appropriately and successfully.

They lived according to the almanac or changes.

Astrology was the science of the world before 1500 AD, before the escalation of global pollution.

They lived according to the natural calendar.

Through alteration they achieved continuity.

By adjusting appropriately to the ways of the heavenly lights they were able to successfully survive.

Year after year, they remained in touch with natureand its changes.

They were therefore wise and divine.

Through continuity they achieved duration.

By living in harmony with the heavenly lights and the receptive dark earth, they survived all of nature’s or life’s challenges successfully.

In this manner they were able to survive and prosper year after year, moon after moon, cycle after cycle.

Thus they successfully achieved duration.

They lived a long time and their rulers and dynasty survived accordingly.

Therefore: “They were blessed by heaven.

The gods watched over them and guided their affairs.

Good fortune.

If one observed and listened to the gods or heavenly lights, and lived their lives accordingly, they would be fortunate in all of their undertakings and activities.

They could thank their luck stars!

This was indeed good fortune.

Nothing that does not further.”

Every action thus guided would only make things better.

They would live on the earth guided by the lights in the heavens.

In every cycle, in every year, in every moon cycle, in every day cycle they would be guided by heavenly light.

They would thus elevate their natures and lift the level of their actions to the divine and even assist the gods themselves!

How could anything go wrong?

They would make no mistakes.

Everything would be done successfully.

Improvements would continually be made.

Nothing could go against this.

Nothing could go against the ways of heaven on earth, or against anyone who followed the advice of the gods.

The Yellow Emperor, Yao, and Shun allowed the upper and lower garments to hang down, and the world was in order.

This is probably a reference to the Book of Rites where rules and social order were developed according to the amount of music and ceremonies that everyone was exposed to.

At each level of society people were given a certain exposure to rituals and ceremonies.

By music they experienced communion with others and developed a sense of unity (within the whole).

By ceremony they learned to respect the different roles and places in society.

By experiencing unity and respecting differences the people were kept in touch with the receptive and the creative.

They could therefore live according to divine laws and be fulfilled and content.

They probably took this from the hexagrams of THE CREATIVE and THE RECEPTIVE.

The hanging of the upper garments and lower garments related to the upper trigrams and lower trigrams of each hexagram.

They were garments placed on the gods and heavenly lights.

The changes were used to understand the zodiac, sun, moon and planets.

The essential understanding came first from the two extremes: the greatest light (June 21) and the greatest darkness (Dec. 22), the full moon and the new moon, midnight and noon.

These points represented the receptive and the creative.

Hence even ceremonies and music originated in the changes or ways of heaven on earth.

Theatre and music had their origin in the gods! (in the heavens and their cycles!)

6. They scooped out tree trunks for boats and the hardened wood in the fire to make oars. The advantage of boats and oars lay in providing means of communication. (They reached distant parts, in order to benefit the whole world.) They probably took this from the hexagram of DISPERSION.

 DISPERSION, DISSOLUTION

They scooped out tree trunks for boats and the hardened wood in the fire to make oars. The advantage of boats and oars lay in providing means of communication. (They reached distant parts, in order to benefit the whole world.) They probably took this from the hexagram of DISPERSION.

Again the changes are being given extra validity because the wise masters of olden time were presented as using the ideas and information in the hexagram of dispersion as a basis for creating tools..

This is a dramatic technique to stimulate reverence for the changes.

The hexagram is being shown to have relevance to worldly affairs and as being the very source of the wisdom and insights of the ancestors.

We are guided by the heavenly lights, or by our stars, in the affairs of our worldly existence.

A boat is a tool that will allow us to traverse distances.

The stars will guide the boat in its travels.

Our individual bodies are like boats in life.

They are moving but usually need guidance and direction.

If the ancient sages used the changes for guidance, the changes must be valid, and considered a personal treasure.

We would be wise to do the same.

If we use the changes or guidance from the heavenly lights our actions and creations would benefit the whole world (the Receptive, Earth).

 DISPERSION, DISSOLUTION

The upper primary trigram wind, wood and gentle penetration.

The lower primary trigram is the dangerous deep water.

The upper nuclear trigram is keeping still.

The mast holding a sail keeps still and holds the sail in place.

The lower nuclear trigram is the arousing force or shock.

It implies sudden movement.

A boat resting on the water with its sails held in place will move across the water, or cut through the water when the wind blows.

This could also be seen as the wood (oars)

 held firmly in ones hand

and dipped into the water

will cause the boat to move

 Corners of the Mouth

The boat (wood) is a hollowed out tree trunk the nuclear hexagram, Corners of the Mouth has the image of keeping still in the boat above while moving below.

The image of the nuclear hexagram is originally an open mouth with teeth above and below. The teeth above keep still, while the teeth below move up.

The advice in this hexagram is to be concerned with what goes into ones mouth, and what comes out of it!

Words can be spoken gently, but if they are not wise or guided by the gods (heavenly lights) they can stimulate dangerous situations.

A parallel association is made here to a dangerous deep river with hard banks on each side.

A boat can carry us across if we hold our oars firmly and use them wisely.

A further association is to a boat strong on the outside like teeth, but open or empty in the middle like one’s mouth.

The mouth will cause problems if it does not have proper guidance.

Understanding the changes will guide one’s words and the course of one’s life wisely.

7. They tamed the ox and yoked the horse. Thus heavy loads could be transported and distant regions reached, for the benefit of the world. They probably took this from the hexagram of FOLLOWING.

They tamed the ox and yoked the horse. Thus heavy loads could be transported and distant regions reached, for the benefit of the world.

The ox and the horse are images in the heavens (zodiac constellations).

To understand the heavenly images and take guidance from them in the affairs of the earth is to have wisdom and the proper perspective to create useful tools that help the whole world.

In this way the stars or animals in the distant heavens can be brought close into our worldly affairs and down to earth where they can inspire, guide creativity, and make the life of the receptive earth mother easier.

They probably took this from the hexagram of FOLLOWING.

 FOLLOWING

The upper primary trigram is joy and pleasure.

The lower primary trigram is movement, shock and thunder.

Movement that evokes a roar of laughter!

People enjoying themselves in good cheer and laughter.

The upper nuclear trigram is gentle, wind, wood, penetration.

The lower nuclear trigram is keeping still.

 Development Gradual Progress

The nuclear hexagram is Development, Gradual Progress.

Here people coming together in good spirits will pause for a moment to laugh and enjoy.

More progress will come from this good will and good cheer than from harshness.

Such a happy development will attract a following.

When bringing people together good will has its own special magic.

People will be glad to join in.

They will simply follow and do what is needed.

8. They introduced double gates and night watchmen with clappers, in order to deal with robbers. They probably took this from the hexagram of ENTHUSIASM.

They introduced double gates and night watchmen with clappers, in order to deal with robbers. They probably took this from the hexagram of ENTHUSIASM.

 ENTHUSIASM

The hexagram represents a time of darkness.

All the lines, but one, are broken or dark.

The lower primary trigram is the receptive, dark earth.

The time is just before midnight.

Everyone is sleeping, passive and receptive.

The one solid line implies movement in the darkness.

Someone is moving while everyone sleeps.

This is the active solid line in the upper primary trigram of the arousing force and shock.

Furthermore this line is in the middle of the upper nuclear trigram of abysmal danger revealing dangerous movement in the darkness when everyone is sleeping and vulnerable.

Hence we have the movement of a thief in the night.

In the time of the receptive doors are closed to maintain peace and quiet.

The lower nuclear trigram is keeping still and it has an association to a door – open space beneath a roof.

This situation is troublesome and one could lose sleep and equilibrium over it.

The idea of a night watchman arises to be on the lookout for danger and thieves.

By moving around in the darkness

and making a loud noise  

it will shock the cowardly thief who will run away rather than risk being caught.

This is an example of using a second association to the hexagram images to counter the potential effects of the primary meaning: of trying to find good in the bad, light in the darkness, and heaven on earth.

Such guidance from heaven is invaluable and the source of wisdom.

The image of light moving above the dark earth has an astrological reference.

When it is dark outside and everyone is sleeping, the stars are shining and move across the heavens.

The moving lights can be seen.

Here the suggestion is of one moving light, the moon, moving above the earth bringing some light to the darkness.

The moonlight reveals hidden danger on the earth.

This moon forecasts a warning.

It sheds light on a difficult or adverse situation.

At the same time, it offers heavenly guidance within this dark time.

A little enthusiasm will remove doubt.

A beautiful sound in the silence, like a lullaby, will put hearts at ease and let them rest.

It will also reveal that someone is still awake and alert.

One takes the last action of checking to make sure the doors are locked.

If one is an emperor or a wealthy nobleman a watchman is hired to keep the robbers away or to catch them in the act.

Either way a better sleep is possible.

Sleep is one of the simple receptive things on earth.

With a good night’s sleep it will be easier to act strongly and firmly in the morning and throughout the next day.

Thus the receptive nourishes the creative and what is simple enables what is easy.

What is needed is protected and what is strong and right is strengthened.

Strong, well rested and healthy one will therefore be better able to do what one has to do in the day ahead.

9. They split wood and made a pestle of it. They made a hollow in the ground for a mortar. The use of the mortar and pestle was of benefit to all mankind. They probably took this from the hexagram of PREPONDERANCE OF THE SMALL.

They split wood and made a pestle of it. They made a hollow in the ground for a mortar. The use of the mortar and pestle was of benefit to all mankind. They probably took this from the hexagram of PREPONDERANCE OF THE SMALL.

 PREPONDERANCE OF THE SMALL

In the upper primary trigram there is shocking movement and thunder.

The lower primary trigram keeps still and firm like a mountain.

In the picture of the whole hexagram the powerful forces (2 solid lines) act together while what is low yields, and what is above yields.

Strength and force within weakness and vulnerability all around.

By force, what appears solid in the affairs of man is humbled and softened.

Seeds are pressed into powder.

Ideas are put to a healing or good use.

Individual strength is directed to the welfare of others.

The creative gives to the receptive.

The strong give to the weak.

Heavenly light gives to the darkness of earth and the affairs of man.

The nuclear hexagram:

 Preponderance of the Great

The lower nuclear trigram of the gentle penetration, wind and wood represents the seeds from which trees and plants grow.

Seeds while being small, are indeed powerful and great!

The upper nuclear trigram is the joyous lake and it represents a time of increasing light and warmth.

The nuclear hexagram is called Preponderance of the Great.

One is left contemplating the implications of what is great, the resulting effects of powerful potent seeds, and also of what is small and useful (primary hexagram).

Seeds will when nourished yield a great harvest.

Seeds when powdered and cooked will nurture and feed everyone.

How incredible are seeds!

They are worthy of profound contemplation and consideration.

They are indeed the creative heaven manifesting and helping the receptive earth.

Thoughts are the seeds of action.

Where do they come from?

Heavenly thoughts inspire and light up the dark affairs of man on earth.

Heavenly thoughts will guide the actions of people towards virtuous deeds or towards actions that help others.

The seeds of heavenly thoughts come from the heavenly lights of the zodiac and moving lights, and are acted out in the circumstances of earth or the astrological houses.

Wisdom comes from the stars above, from our relationship to them, and to the earth below.

Thoughts about preponderance of the small seeds are saturated with thoughts about the preponderance of the great effects of seeds!

One who knows the seeds is truly wise and capable of teaching or guiding men and women.

The secret of the changes is in the seeds.

The secret of the changes is in the gods and the heavenly lights.

The seeds, or secret of the changes, has heavenly or astrological origins.

10. They strung a piece of wood for a bow and hardened pieces of wood in the fire for arrows. The use of bow and arrow is to keep the world in fear. They probably took this from the hexagram of OPPOSITION.

They strung a piece of wood for a bow and hardened pieces of wood in the fire for arrows. The use of bow and arrow is to keep the world in fear. They probably took this from the hexagram of OPPOSITION.

Here the hexagram as a whole pictures an archer.

The bottom two lines, solid in the first and second places, are the two feet placed firmly on the earth.

The broken line in the third place is the bottom of the bow bending (yielding).

The solid line in the fourth place is the firm hand holding the middle of the wooden bow firmly, and the other hand using strength and firmness to hold back the bowstring with the strong sharp arrow in its grasp.

The broken line in the fifth place is the top of the bow bending (yielding).

The solid line in the sixth place is the light of day, to see by.

Furthermore the upper primary trigram is the clinging, fire which implies clarity, seeing clearly and aiming precisely.

Also implied is the archer clinging to the bowstring

and the arrow as he pulls it back.

The lower primary trigram is the joyous lake where animals all come to drink.

In such a place the hunter will find animals and be successful.

It signifies the happy hunting grounds.

In the cycle of the day this hexagram refers to the period just after sunrise as the light begins to increase.

The primary trigrams refer to the sun rising over the lake.

Animals will be drinking.

The hunter will see clearly and be able to aim well.

The hunter will also have firm footing and a clear view.

The advantage will be his.

This implies happy hunting.

Nuclear Hexagram:

 After Completion

The upper nuclear hexagram is dangerous water, the abysmal.

This is the hidden danger of the hunter with his bow.

The animals come to drink, but there is danger in the shadows.

They come to live. The unfortunate ones will end up dead.

This is the paradox or opposition in life.

Where there is life, there is also death.

Where there is death, there is also life.

The lower nuclear trigram is also the clinging fire.

This reveals the early hours of sunrise.

The hunter who watches will see clearly and his aim will be good.

The use of bow and arrow is to keep the world in fear.

In this statement a military emphasis was added to this hexagram making the hunter a soldier.

Here the fire above sees the enjoyments below.

The emperor and his army of archers can see how the people are enjoying themselves.

If it is deemed a wrongful or harmful enjoyment they can kill the perpetrators, or those in the opposing army waiting to attack.

The nuclear trigram of danger brings opposition to the happiness of those enjoying what they should not.

They would be better to live in fear of being seen or caught.

This could also be applied to using an archer or guard to defend a happy home.

An astrological insight:

In the cycle of the year this hexagram represents the light half of spring, as life returns and happiness prevails. This is the first hexagram in Taurus, where one can begin to enjoy the increasing sunlight and warmth. Hunting becomes easier and animals more abundant.

In the cycle of the day this is the time when the sun is rising over the trees.

It is light out, but the grass is still wet.

In the cycle of the moon this is the first appearance of the crescent moon.

Light can be seen in the early morning before sunrise!

11. In primitive times people dwelt in caves and lived in forests. The holy men of a later time made the change to buildings. At the top was a ridgepole, and sloping down from it there was a roof, to keep off wind and rain. They probably took this from the hexagram of THE POWER OF THE GREAT.

 THE POWER OF THE GREAT

In primitive times people dwelt in caves and lived in forests.

In the times of earlier heaven people lived in touch with nature or closer to nature, in caves and in trees, adjusting to and in harmony with nature.

The holy men of a later time made the change to buildings.

It is questionable whether holy men made the change to buildings, more protected from nature.

This is a statement giving justification to the sequence of later heaven.

It suggests that life and its circumstances evolved.

This thought is still prevalent today.

Mankind is considered to be above nature, but with all the pollution, waste and discord still prevalent,

it could be considered that this was a process of devolution or separation from nature!

Most holy men went to the caves and the forests to find peace in silence to hide in the secret away from the disturbances of fellow man.

At the top was a ridgepole, and sloping down from it there was a roof, to keep off wind and rain.

The image of a house is still a universal and valid one.

The lower primary trigram is the creative, heaven.

There is firmness and strength below!

The upper primary trigram is the arousing force, thunder.

Here we have thunder in the heavens, on earth we have a firm foundation from which a roof rises.

We have a strong centre beam rising from the main building or room.

This is the solid line in the fourth place.

On each side the roof slants down.

These are the broken lines in the fifth and sixth places.

The roof rises into heaven, but each side slants down to let the rain and snow run off it.

This protects the house.

Nuclear Hexagram:

 

Breakthrough, Resoluteness.

The upper nuclear trigram is the joyous lake, revealing rain coming with the thunder.

The lower nuclear hexagram is the creative heaven secure and strong in its defense from nature.

They probably took this from the hexagram of THE POWER OF THE GREAT.

The power of the great also implies the strength and force of the first son when supported by his father.

The greatest storms will be overcome.

This is the symbol of great power, a father and his first son.

Astrologically:

In the year this is the light half of spring, just before the longest day.

Light is powerfully increasing towards its maximum expression.

This is the zodiac sign of Gemini …… great brightness.

The father has a son.

The way of the male or light is dominant.

In the day this is the period just before noon when activity and light are about to reach their peak.

In the moon cycle this is the very active and bright phase leading up to the full moon.

12. In primitive times the dead were buried by covering them thickly with brushwood and placing them in the open country, without burial mound or grove of trees. The period of mourning had no definite duration. The holy men of a later time introduced inner and outer coffins instead. They probably took this from the hexagram of PREPONDERANCE OF THE GREAT.

 PREPONDERANCE OF THE GREAT

In primitive times the dead were buried by covering them thickly with brushwood and placing them in the open country, without burial mound or grove of trees.

Primitive times were the times of farming and living in touch with nature.

These were the times of Fu Hsi and of earlier heaven.

The reference to the dead comes from the sequence of the hexagrams.

The time of the creative heaven or of maximum light has come and gone.

The way of the superior man is over and dead.

His light no longer increases.

This hexagram marks the early days of summer.

The darkness has started to increase.

The way of the inferior man is increasing.

The way of mother earth is beginning.

The way of increasing receptivity and darkness has begun.

This is revealed by the broken line of increasing darkness at the bottom of the hexagram in the first place.

The increasing light has been put in its grave.

The time of the heavenly father is over.

The top line in the sixth place of the hexagram is also broken and dark.

All the lines within are solid and firm, or stiff like a corpse.

The superior man of light has nowhere to step firmly.

He must yield to the demands of the earth below.

He must watch his step, darkness below.

Furthermore it is dark out above him and he can no longer see,

Others cannot see or recognize him.

He has lost his way!

He is as good as dead.

In nature:

the time of germination, growth and blossoming has come and is finished.

The water  (lake above) will water and nourish

the plants (wood below)

This process when heated by the summer warmth will produce a great harvest.

Concern about the harvest is concern about the death of the crops, and the seeds of new life and the next harvest.

This shows growing concern and an adaptation to the needs of mother earth.

The bees have completed the pollination of the flowers.

The nuclear trigrams  are the creative, above and below.

Strength and power is now within.

The results of spring growth will now be nurtured and grow.

If the wind brings sufficient water to the plants (crops) a great harvest will come.

This is about the death of plants and nature’s great way of creating seeds (of rebirth) to preserve itself.

The period of mourning had no definite duration.

The exact time of the harvest was not set.

Darkness is increasing and will increase for six months until the winter comes.

The time of the harvest depends on

the daily amount of water

and wind  .

Sometimes it comes early. Sometimes it comes late.

The specifics are unique every year but the cycle and its implications are the same.

This was the way of agriculture and farmers, the way of peaceful work and living.

All things were given due consideration.

It is indeed a time of the demands of the earth mother, the increasing darkness.

The holy men of a later time introduced inner and outer coffins instead.

The later time was a time of weapons and war, of military might and rebellion.

These were the times of King Wan and the Duke of Chou when military might and power was a major factor.

These were the times of later heaven.

The holy men were not the soldiers but more likely they were the ones who would bury those who were killed.

The strength within the crops became the strength or power within the armed forces of the emperor.

The broken line below at the bottom meant that there was nothing to stand on.

The broken line above at the top meant the powerful warrior could no longer see.

He was as good as dead if not actually dead.

To strengthen the memory of the dead (superior man) he would be placed in double coffins as revealed by the creative above and below in the nuclear hexagram of the creative.

He would have a strong home for his journey into the earth or underworld, his journey into darkness.

They probably took this from the hexagram of PREPONDERANCE OF THE GREAT.

 PREPONDERANCE OF THE GREAT

In the time of earlier heaven it meant preponderance on the results of the creative light, preponderance on how much was achieved in the time of creativity, how much of a crop was actually planted.

From this one could begin to see how great a harvest was possible and what would be required to make the most of the harvest.

One would contemplate on how wet or dry the summer was, and after such consideration one would see what actions would be required.

If the weather was too wet or too dry concern would develop about survival in the winter.

If the weather was good then concern would develop as to what was needed to reap the abundant harvest.

Good fortune and misfortune were no longer in the hands of the superior man, or increasing daylight.

They would now be determined by the circumstances of the earth.

In the times of later heaven, great preponderance meant where one would go if one was killed in the service of the army or by the soldiers themselves, and the time of darkness to follow.

From this developed specific rites and rituals to accommodate the passing of a significant or powerful person.

They were placed in a double coffin before burial.

Some were buried in mounds to further imply their greatness.

They were so great that the earth would rise by their presence within.

Their body would return to earth.

Their spirit would travel on the wind to its happy place in the heavens.

Here we see the different style of interpretation done in the time of earlier heaven with its use of the natural sequence of Fu Hsi, and that done in the time of later heaven with the associations and beliefs of King Wan, the Duke of Chou, and Confucius.

Astrological note:

This is in the zodiac sign of Cancer where it is said that the soul is born at the beginning of increasing darkness.

It is also ruled by the moon and accentuates memories and reflections, hence it has within it the reflection of the dark times to come and respect for the increasing vulnerabilities.

Cancers are said to value and want a home.

The casket is a home for the dead in the after-world.

13. In primitive times people knotted cords in order to govern. The holy men of a later age introduced written documents instead, as a means of governing the various officials and supervising the people. They probably took this from the hexagram of BREAKING THROUGH.

 BREAK THROUGH, RESOLUTENESS

In primitive times people knotted cords in order to govern.

This was the time of early heaven.

 The knotted cord refers to the broken line at the top of five solid lines.

A knot in the cord, a notch cut in apiece of wood, or a piece of wood cut in such a way that the parts could be given to the chiefs, and when they assembled again the two parts could be united.

This was a token of future togetherness and union.

It symbolized a bond of togetherness in a time of independent ways.

In the sequence of early heaven, this hexagram is the last one before the greatest light of six solid lines.

Here there is one broken line at the top, hence the knot or notch in the wood.

Out of the greatest darkness light increases.

As light increases so does activity and words.

The more words …. the less understanding.

The more communication …. the less content.

This hexagram represents a powerful use of words and communications,

Thoughts of one strong person to another

Hence the concept of breakthrough, resoluteness.

The holy men of a later age introduced written documents instead, as a means of governing the various officials and supervising the people. They probably took this from the hexagram of BREAKINGTHROUGH

In the times and sequence of later heaven power became established through words.

Writing became the voice of power.

Writing became the means to organize a large community or empire.

Control and power were maintained by words and writing.

In the time of earlier heaven emphasis was given to mother earth, to the darkness and the silence.

This was a time that revered the ways of the mother and of earth, or of darkness and receptivity.

This was the simple way of the collective group or family.

In the time of later heaven emphasis was given to the superior man, to the ways of light, power and words.

Creative strength was considered a virtue.

Receptivity was considered weakness.

Men were superior, women were not.

This was a time that revered military control and strength.

These became the way of the creative father, or light.

The strength to live up to one’s heavenly destiny, to be a strong or as creative as one could, to have as many children as one could.

This was the easy way of the individual or self-centered strong person.

Astrological note:

The hexagram Breakthrough is in the zodiac sign of Gemini.

Gemini is the sign of talking, writing and individual communications or expression.

It is the most independent of the zodiac signs and it signifies expressions of freedom and free expression.

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